Category: Principles of Plant Breeding Notes

Principles of Plant Breeding Notes

Plant Breeding
Modes of Reproduction
Apomixis
Modes of Pollination
Classification of plants
Botanical description and floral biology – cereals
Botanical Description And Floral Biology – Maize, Sorghum, Pearlmillet, Ragi
Botanical Description and Floral Biology – Fox Tail Millet, Little Millet, Proso Millet, Kodo millet
Botanical Description and Floral Biology – Pulses
Botanical Description and Floral Biology – Oil Seeds
Cotton
Jute – Corchorus capsularis
Sun Hemp
Sugars
Forage Crops
Emasculation and Pollination Techniques
Maize
Sorghum
Pearl Millet
Ragi or Finger millet
Red gram, Black Gram, Cowpea, Bengal Gram, Groundnut, Soybean, Sesame, Sunflower, Castor
Methods of Breeding – Introduction and Acclimatization
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) (2n = 80)
Emasculation and Pollination Techniques in Cotton
Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 2
Selection, Mass selection, pure line selection and Johannson’s pure line theory, genetic basis
Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization
Methods of handling of segregating generations – pedigree method, bulk method, back cross method and various modified methods
Back cross method and various modified methods
Application of the Backcross Method to Cross Pollinated Crops
Incompatibility and male sterility and their utilization in crop improvement
Heterosis, inbreeding depression, various theories of HeterosisPopulation improvement programmes
Breeding Methods for Cross Pollinated Crops
Clonal selection
Hybrids
Hybridization
Mutation Breeding
Procedure for Mutation Breeding
Applications of Mutation Breeding
Ploidy Breeding
Aneuploidy
Euploid – Monoploids and Haploids – Autopolyploid
Euploid – Allopolyploid

Sun Hemp

Sun hemp. Crotalaria juncea. 2n=16 Fabaceae Sunnhemp is another source of best fiber, grown in tropical countries. It is also grown as fodder and green manure. The fibers are stronger than jute but lighter in color and more enduring than jute. They are long strands of fiber of about 4 to 5 feet in length […]

Sugars

Sugars (Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum (2n=80) Poaceae.) Sugar cane is a perennial gigantic grassy plant of Poaceae family. It is extensively grown in India, Cuba, Hawaii W. Indies. There are 5 species of sugarcane of which three are cultivated and two are wild species. 1. Saccharum officinarum. Noble cane (2n=80) Large barreled, low fiber, high […]

Selection, Mass selection, pure line selection and Johannson’s pure line theory, genetic basis

Selection, Mass selection, pure line selection and Johannson’s pure line theory, genetic basis Selection in Self-Pollinated Crops To get successful results by selection there are two pre-requisites. a) Variation must be present in the population. b) The variation must be heritable. History of selection Selection was practiced by farmers from ancient times. During 16th century […]

Sorghum

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (2n = 20) Family – Poaceae Sorghum is normally self-pollinated but some florets are protogyny resulting in cross pollination averaging about 6%. So, it is classified as often cross- pollinated. The amount of natural cross pollination varies from 0.6 to 50 per cent in different varieties and places. The cross pollination is […]

Red gram, Black Gram, Cowpea, Bengal Gram, Groundnut, Soybean, Sesame, Sunflower, Castor

Red gram (Cajanus cajan) (2n = 22) Family – Fabaceae Self-pollination is the rule in Red gram and natural crossing extents up to 65 per cent. Therefore, it is also known as often cross-pollinated crop. Adaptations for self-pollination 1. Bisexual 2. Close proximity of anthers and stigma 3. Simultaneous maturity of anthers and stigma. Selfing, […]

Plant Breeding

Plant Breeding Plant breeding is an art and science, which tells us ways and means to change the genetic architecture of plants so as to attain a particular objective. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques Plant breeding […]

Ploidy Breeding

Ploidy Breeding The mitotic and meiotic divisions are very precise as a result of which the chromosome numbers of different species are highly stable. But a low frequency of irregularities does occur both during mitotic and meiotic divisions. These irregularities give rise to individuals with chromosome numbers different from the normal somatic chromosome number of […]