Category: Crop Physiology Notes

Crop Physiology Notes

Abscission and senescence
Absorption of Water
Cytokinins, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid
Diffusion, Osmosis and Imbibition
Efficiency of respiration
Environmental Stresses Draught (Water Stress)
Factors affecting photosynthesis
Factors Affecting Respiration
Factors affecting transpiration rate
Factors Influencing Plant Growth
Field Capacity, Available Soil Water and Permanent Wilting Point
Foliar Diagnosis of Nutritional and Physiological Disorders
Global Warming -Physiological Effects on Crop Productivity
High Moisture Stress -Flooding or Water Logging
Low light and UV radiation stresses
Mechanism of Photosynthesis
Mechanism of Uptake Nutrients
Mechanism of Water Absorption
Mineral Nutrition
Nutritional and Physiological Disorders
Photosynthetic Pathways – C3 Plants
Photosynthetic Pathways – C4 Cycle Or Hatch and Slack Pathway
Photosynthetic Pathways – Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (Cam) Cycle or The Dark Fixation of Co2 In Succulents
Plant Anatomy
Plant Growth Analysis
Plant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth
Practical Application of Plant Growth Regulators in Crop Productivity
Protein and Fat Synthesis
Role and significance of water
Salt Stress
Seed Germination
Source Sink Relationship
Specific Roles of Essential Mineral Elements
Temperature Stress
Theories of Flowering
Translocation of Solutes
Vernalization and Devernalization
Water Potential
Xylem Transport

Xylem Transport

Xylem Transport A. Ascent of Sap The water after being absorbed by the roots is distributed to all parts of the plants. In order to reach the topmost part of the plant, the water has to move upward through the stem. The upward movement of water is called as Ascent of sap. Ascent of sap […]

Water Potential

Prelude of Water Potential Most organisms are comprised of at least 70% or more water. Some plants, like a head of lettuce, are made up of nearly 95% water. When organisms go dormant, they loose most of their water. For example, seeds and buds are typically less than 10% water, as are desiccated rotifers, nematodes […]

Vernalization and Devernalization

Vernalization and Devernalization The cold treatment given to plant buds, seeds or seedlings for promoting early flowering is known as Vernalization. In short, the chilling treatment for induction of early flowering is called Vernalization. Besides an appropriate photoperiod, certain plants require a low temperature treatment during their early stages of the life for subsequent flowering […]

Temperature Stress

Temperature Stress Temperature stress includes both high temperature stress and low temperature stress. Low temperature stress causes chilling injury and freezing injury. Low temperature stress 1. Chilling injury The tropical origin plants are injured when the temperature drops to some point close to 0°C. The injury which occurs due to low temperature but above zero […]


Transpiration Although large quantities of water are absorbed by plant from the soil but only a small amount of it is utilized. The excess of water is lost from the aerial parts of plants in the form of water vapours. This is called as Transpiration. Transpiration is of three types 1. Stomatal transpiration Most of […]

Translocation of Solutes

Translocation of Solutes Translocation of organic solutes The movement of organic food materials or the solutes in soluble form one place to another in higher plants is called as translocation of organic solutes Directions of translocation Translocation of organic solutes may take place in the following directions. 1. Downward translocation Mostly, the organic material is […]

Theories of Flowering

Transmission of Stimulus – Theories of Flowering. Photoperiodic Induction The influence of the length of day and night on the initiation of flowering is called photoperiodic induction or photo induction. Plants may require one or more inductive cycle for flowering. An appropriate photoperiod in 24 hours cycle constitutes one inductive cycle. If a plant which […]

Specific Roles of Essential Mineral Elements

Specific Roles of Essential Mineral Elements A. Macronutrients 1. Nitrogen • Nitrogen is important constituent of proteins, nucleic acids, porphyries (chlorophylls & cytochromes) alkaloids, some vitamins, coenzymes etc • Thus N plays very important role in metabolism, growth, reproduction and heredity. 2. Phosphorus • It is important constituent of nucleic acids, phospholipids, coenzymes NADP, NADP […]

Source Sink Relationship

Source Sink Relationship Source 1. It is the regions of photo assimilates production 2. Export photo assimilates 3. Chlorophyllous tissues 4. Leaves, stipules, fruit wall, young stem, pedicel, awns, peduncle, calyx, bract etc. Sink 1. Regions of photo assimilates consumption 2. Import photo assimilates 3. Growing regions 4. Storage organs –Fruit and Seed Source strength […]

Seed Germination

Seed Germination The process of seed germination starts with the imbibition of water by seed coat and emergence of growing root tip of embryo. The process ends with the development of embryo into a seedling. Physiological and biochemical changes during seed germination 1. Water uptake Seed germination starts with the imbibition of water by dry […]